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Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a medical procedure which allows embryos to be tested for gender-related genetic conditions, prior to being placed in the womb, giving the best opportunity to select the gender of your baby, or screen for genetic defects
Our experts can review your semen analysis results, and give you a "second opinion" on whether or not you should continue your current course of fertility treatment. When thousands of dollars are at risk, it is always best to get as many of the facts as possible.
Anyone who is having trouble conceiving should have a semen analysis done. In about 40% of infertile couples, the cause of the infertility lies with the males, and this could easily and quickly be diagnosed via a semen analysis.
The Express Home Male Fertility Evaluation is performed using state-of-the-art, computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology, and is cross referenced by our experts who have 25 years of experience in andrology, in order to ensure proper quality control.
Since all semen is different, and there is a chance that a particular type will not survive the chilling process used for BioTranz overnight transport, we have developed a system where a "dry run" can be done.With this procedure, the semen is shipped to us and we will do an analysis of it.
Normal sperm morphology has been shown to be predictive of IVF outcome/success. The AIA evaluates normal sperm morphology using either or both WHO standards and also strict criteria methodologies. The strict criteria is based on the shape and appearance of post-coital sperm found in the internal os. Basically, the sperm should have a smooth oval head, with no defects in the neck or tail regions. The percentage of normal sperm assessed using this method has been shown to correlate with other sperm functions such as sperm motility, binding to the egg investments and subsequent fertilization (3,4). Normal values should be greater than 14% normal sperm.
Semen preparation or reconstitution techniques are used in assisted reproduction and IUI to separate sperm, which have a normal appearance and move spontaneously, from the fluid portion of the semen in which the sperm are suspended. It is known that white blood cells, bacteria and dead sperm in semen can produce oxygen radicals that can impair fertilization of the egg.
The same applies as in the case of sperm preparation done with IUI except in this case the sperm that is used is frozen-thawed and is coming from a semen donation program.
In order for fertilization to occur, high quality, motile spermatozoa need to be separated from the seminal specimen. Since there is great diversity in semen profiles, especially among infertile men, here at AIA, each specimen undergoes a special "tailor-made" procedure to isolate the best sperm for ART and IUI. For this purpose, we have developed numerous innovative techniques depending on the quality of the specimen. Among these are the SpermPrep I and II columns, the ZSC I, ZSC-II and Multi-ZSC technologies, all developed by our very own Research and Development Program at AIA (5,6,7). For more information on these products, please visit www.zdlinc.com
The procedure we use at the Andrology Institute of America is the sedimentation method. This procedure is similarly used for both the male and female selection and takes approximately 2hrs to process. On average, it takes 3-4 cycles to achieve a pregnancy with the sex selection technique. Our success rate is approximately 80% for the male selection and 72% for the female selection. This is not a guaranteed procedure, but it will increase your chances for a specific sex of a child. Gender selection does not damage or alter the sperm in any way, therefore, it will not affect the chances for abnormality to the fetus or the establishment of pregnancy.
See Also: Home Gender Selection Packages
The duration of sperm motility and overall physical activity is also an important indicator of sperm function and vitality. This is tested to ensure that sperm do not "die off" after a certain period of time.
HOS-test is used to test the integrity of the sperm cell membrane using the principle of osmotic differences. When normal sperm are placed in a hypoosmotic solution, water moves across the cell membrane into the sperm cell causing it to swell. If the membrane is damaged, then this transport of water will not occur and no swelling will take place. Thus, the percentage of swollen spermatozoa is the measure of intact membranes and hence sperm viability and fecundity (8,9).
These are antibodies produced by the immune system that mistake sperm for invading substances and begin to attack them. The presence of anti-sperm antibodies has been shown to cause immobilization and agglutination of sperm, thereby preventing sperm from reaching the oocyte (10). Anti-sperm antibodies can be detected in serum, seminal plasma, cervical mucus and other reproductive tract fluids (tubal, follicular, uterine). It is estimated that 5-10% of male infertility is caused by antisperm antibodies and 10-15% of women with unexplained infertility have circulating sperm antibodies in their system.
Retrograde ejaculation refers to the movement of seminal fluid backwards (retrograde) into the bladder instead of forward (antegrade) through the urethra during ejaculation. This is caused by the inability of the bladder neck to close tightly enough during ejaculation. In men with retrograde ejaculation, the post-orgasm urine can be collected and assessed for the presence of sperm. If sperm are present, the high-quality sperm can be isolated and, if adequate, can be used for ART procedures (11,12,13), as well as IUI, with great success.
Round spermatids are immature sperm cells which can be used for injection directly into the oocyte via ICSI. Usually this is the method of choice when there are no sperm present in the testis or epididymis. We offer a Hyper-osmotic Shrinkage Test (HYOS-test), that we developed at AIA, to identify and select round spermatids with intact membranes, for microinjection via ICSI (14).
The specialists at the Andrology Institute of America deliver the latest in infertility treatment. Contact us for information or to schedule a consultation.